Diesel Engine: How Does a Diesel Engine Works?

Do you know how does a diesel engine works? There are many stages of combustion in a diesel engine. The variation in gas pressure inside a cylinder can show how this process happens. An indicator diagram shows different stages of eruption.

The vertical axis represents cylinder pressure, while the horizontal axis is the crank angle. The curve is continuous for firing engines but breaks up at point A when fuel injection begins. The difference is in the amount of time that varies after the start of injection.

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How Does a Diesel Engine Works?

A diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine that uses compression to ignite the fuel. Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline engines and produce less pollution.

Diesel engines work by compressing air in the cylinders. This increases the temperature of the air, which ignites the fuel when it is injected into the cylinders. The ignited fuel then expands and pushes the pistons, which turn the crankshaft and power the vehicle.

Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline engines because they use compression to ignite the fuel instead of a spark plug. This makes them more efficient because there is no wasted energy from the spark plug. Diesel engines also produce less pollution because they burn fuel more completely.

1. Rudolf Diesel’s invention

The diesel engines are named after Rudolf Diesel. A compression-ignition process characterizes this type of engine. Mechanical compression increases the temperature of the air inside the cylinder. This combustion produces the energy necessary to move the car. The machine has been around for decades, and its main advantage is its ease of operation. 

Developed in Germany, Rudolf Diesel’s compression-ignition engine uses combustion and is self-igniting. The air is compressed within the combustion chamber and heats the fuel. Compared to the steam engine, the Diesel engine is more efficient. He founded a factory in Augsburg to begin series production.

2. Constant Pressure Cycle

A diesel engine has two major types of cycles: the constant pressure cycle and the dual-combustion cycle. Both cycles are based on the same principles but with slightly different average expansion ratios.

In these cycles, combustion occurs in two distinct phases: the compression stroke and the expansion stroke. When comparing the two cycles, the expansion stroke is more straightforward than the compression cycle, and isobaric heat addition is impossible.

In real engines, the compression occurs adiabatically from state 1 to state 2, with no isobaric heat addition. As a result, the engine’s thermal efficiency is reduced by the compression and expansion processes.

The constant pressure cycle in diesel engines is the most common type. This cycle involves the constant gas and airflow in a single component. The result is a series of cycles with variable temperatures.

When an internal combustion engine is compared to a gas turbine, the work ratio (M.E.P.) is used to evaluate its performance. A high M.E.P. means a large work output per unit of the swept volume.

3. The Pre-mixed Phase

This method improves the combustion process by reducing NOx and soot emissions. 

The premixed combustion stage in a diesel engine occurs between the ignition delay phase and the mixing controlled combustion phase. The proportion of fuel consumed in this phase depends on the rate of fuel preparation during the delay period.

The gas jet multizone phenomenological model has been used to study the premixed combustion phase of a diesel engine. Injection timing and pressure are also crucial parameters in this phase.

4. StandardRail Diesel Fuel Injection System

While a common rail diesel fuel injection system is now standard equipment on most cars, it is also a good option for small industrial engines. Unlike other injection systems, where the maximum pressure remains constant over a wide range of engine speeds.

A common rail system provides flexible fuel injection, improved spray penetration, and improved mixing even at low engine speeds. Moreover, the variable geometry turbocharger can be installed to boost torque at low engine speeds.

A common Rail injection problem can cause the car to lose power, especially when the fuel is watery. Water reacts with fuel chemicals and corrodes metal surfaces. It can also reduce the lubrication between moving parts, leading to premature wear and tear on the injectors and high-pressure fuel pumps.

Consequently, it is vital to ensure good fuel quality for optimum performance. Incorrect fuel quality can affect fuel economy, poor starting, and high emissions.

Final Words

In conclusion, the diesel engine is a very powerful and efficient machine. It is able to convert the energy from the fuel into mechanical energy, which can then be used to power vehicles and other equipment. The diesel engine is reliable and durable, making it a popular choice for many applications.

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